Kernel, Linux

Ease your kernel tracing struggle with LTTng Addons

If you are new to Linux tracing and/or LTTng, go no further. Head on to the new and awesome LTTng Docs to know what this stuff is all about. I wrote an article on basics of LTTng and then followed it up with some more stuff a few month back too.

Ok, so now for those who have been using LTTng for sometime and especially, the kernel tracer, I am pretty sure, you must have faced a moment when you would have asked yourself – what if I could just modify those default tracepoints provided by LTTng and maybe add some more functionality to them. As an example, here is an interesting use-case I recently encountered –

Consider the netif_receive_skb event. A tracepoint is present in a function of the same name in the kernel. This function notifies the kernel whenever the data is received in the socket buffer for any of the net devices and when this event in enabled, the tracepoint is hit and skbaddr, data length and device name are recorded by default. For more info on how this works, refer to the TRACE_EVENT macro in the kernel. There are a few articles on LWN explaining how this all works. The LTTng tracepoint definitions are no alien to this mechanism. They basically act as a probe to hook onto these tracepoints in the kernel and are provided in the form of kernel modules. Refer to the internals of lttng-modules package and do have a look at what LTTng Docs have to say about this. Coming back to our use-case, so now consider that I want to just record a netif_receive_skb event only when its a localhost device (skb->dev->name == "lo"). Hmm, interesting.

Now, instead of forcing you to understand the deep internals of how the LTTng’s macros were magically working behind the scenes, Francis Giraldeau did some little sorcery and churned out…*drum roll*… lttng-addons! Checkout the addons branch in the repo. Apart from a massive help in running research experiments rapidly, it can be used for some practical scenarios too. Do have a look at the current modules available in that. I have added a new netif_receive_skb_filter event (provided in addons/lttng-skb-recv.c) to explain the use-case which we were discussing about previously. It can also act as a mini template for adding your own addon modules. Basically the flow is – create your module C file, make entry in Makefile, add the custom TRACE_EVENT entry in instrumentation/events/lttng-module/addons.h for your module, build and install modules, modprobe your new module, fire lttng-sessiond as root and then enable your custom event. Such happiness, much wow!

Once you have built the modules and installed them, restart lttng-sessiond as root and try to see if your newly created events are available:

$ lttng-list -k | grep netif
netif_receive_skb (loglevel: TRACE_EMERG (0)) (type: tracepoint)
netif_rx (loglevel: TRACE_EMERG (0)) (type: tracepoint)
netif_receive_skb_filter (loglevel: TRACE_EMERG (0)) (type: tracepoint)

Do the usual stuff next and have a look at the trace:

$ lttng create
$ lttng enable-event -k netif_receive_skb_filter
$ lttng start
$ ping -c2 localhost
$ ping -c2 suchakra.in
$ lttng stop
$ lttng view
[22:51:28.120319188] (+?.?????????) isengard netif_receive_skb_filter: { cpu_id = 3 }, { skbaddr = 18446612135363067648, len = 84, name = "lo" }
[22:51:28.120347949] (+0.000028761) isengard netif_receive_skb_filter: { cpu_id = 3 }, { skbaddr = 18446612137085857024, len = 84, name = "lo" }
[22:51:29.120071966] (+0.999724017) isengard netif_receive_skb_filter: { cpu_id = 3 }, { skbaddr = 18446612137085856768, len = 84, name = "lo" }
[22:51:29.120102320] (+0.000030354) isengard netif_receive_skb_filter: { cpu_id = 3 }, { skbaddr = 18446612137085857280, len = 84, name = "lo" }

And there you have it, your first filtered kernel trace with your first custom addon module. Happy tracing!

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3 thoughts on “Ease your kernel tracing struggle with LTTng Addons

  1. Frank Ch. Eigler says:

    FWIW, if you go to the trouble of using custom kernel modules to encode kernel-side filtering of events, have you experimented with systemtap?

    probe kernel.trace(“netif_receive_skb”) {
    if (kernel_string($skb->dev->name) == “lo”) println ( /* … whatever … */ )
    }

    • Yes I have used Systemtap for such tasks before. Even though it is feature rich and provides ease of use, for me, a reduced overhead and scalability provided by LTTng is of greater importance. Thus, all this hacking🙂 More advanced and easy filtering (using BPF/filter strings) is even provided by ftrace using the DEBUGFS filter mechanism but my aim was to do some simple hacking and eventually move towards better kernel filtering using LTTng.

  2. Pingback: Links 30/10/2014: GNOME 3.15.1, Red Hat Software Collections 1.2 | Techrights

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